Monday February 1, 2021

GRAND ADVENTURE By ANNA MARIE MATEESCU PORTUGAL The Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa) is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in south-western Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelago of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The official national language is Portuguese and Lisbon is the capital. Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe. Its territory has been continuously settled, invaded, and fought-over since prehistoric times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples, visited by Phoenicians-Carthaginians, Ancient Greeks, and ruled by the Romans, all of whom were followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic people. After the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, most of its territory was part of Al-Andalus. Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Batthle of Sap. The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique, and independence from Leon recognized by the Treaty of Zamora. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global maritime and commercial empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political, and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would become Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, the country’s occupation during...... Read more on Full Issue!

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